Measuring Tapes (Steel)
2. Carbon Potentiometers
3. Auto Pistons
4. Wafer Biscuits (New)
5. Automatic Curtain Opener
6. Tumbler Locks
7. Cement Concrete Tiles and Paving Blocks
8. Woven Labels
9. Electro Cardiogram Paper (E.C.G. Paper)
10. Tomato Products
11. Leather Chappals
12. Distribution Board
13. V. Belts and Fan Belts
14. Baby Bloomer Suits
15. Electronic quartz Analog Clocks
16. Power Pack/Battery Eliminators
17. Table Fan
18. Potato/Banana Wafers
19. Laminated Safety Glass
20. HRC Fuse Links, 1000 VAC
21. Directory Section
is an extract of the content from the book)
measuring tapes are used for measuring length or distances. There are
number of measuring devices available for different purposes for instance
steel measuring tape, tailors measuring tape, measuring scale wooden and
steel rulers and soon steel measuring tapes are used for measuring length
or distances. These are hand items being encased in rolled form. As this
is a small compact item, it can be easily carried from place to place in a
pocket or small bags. For sturdiness and easy handling in outdoor
activities such as on construction sites or sports fields or factories
executives prefer to have this item in their pockets. These measuring
tapes are available in various lengths from 1 metre to 30 meters.
the dawn of civilization, metals and materials have played a keyrole in
the life of man without effective utilisation of metals and materials the
spectacular engineering achievements of the present age would not have
been possible. Tremendous developments have of late, taken place in the
production of ferrous and non ferrous metals and their innumerable alloys
and this ‘materials explosion has now reached astonishing levels
compared with the 19th century, when only 20 odd materials were in
industrial use and many which were unheard of or were mere scientific
curiosities then, have now made important contributions to the advancement
tapes are frequently used in land measurement, wall and floor
measurements. In construction of buildings, it has its unique importance
keeping in point of view as easy handling due to it is in form of rolls
compacted in a circular case. It also has wide scope in engineering
to the rapid growth of activities for measuring various areas particularly
in the field of survey work, the demand is coming up rapidly. Besides its
extensive uses by surveyors, it is also used by laboratories for
determining areas and different institutions. In view of increasing
activities in construction, sports and games, new industries etc. the
demand for measuring tapes will go on increasing. There are very few units
manufacturing this item. An increased demand with development of more
engineering nature of work of linear measurement in schools, science
colleges, architects and engineering workshops and drawing offices have
marvellous inclination towards these measuring tapes.
is the largest selling brand in India for Measuring Tapes.
In view of increasing activities in construction, sports and
games, new industries etc., the demand for measuring tapes will go on
increasing. There are few units manufacturing this item. Therefore, there
is good scope for new units to come up in this activity in various parts
of the country.
Potentiometer is an electronic component classified as variable resistor.
Carbon Potentiometer is used as voltage divider to provide variable output
voltage. Carbon Potentiometers uses carbon as resistive element. There are
different types of Potentiometers like Wire Wound and ceramic type using
different materials as resistive element. Carbon Potentiometer can be
classified into logarithmic type and linear type depending on the mode of
operations. Carbon Potentiometers are manufactured in many shapes and
sizes depending on resistance value, power rating and type of mounting.
mounted type Carbon Potentiometer are widely used for volume and tone
control in consumer and entertainment electronics. Printed Circuit Board
mount type is used as function controller, measuring and testing
equipment, medical electronics, industrial electronics etc. Carbon
Potentiometers are available with and without switches. There are many
varieties of spindles used for carbon potentiometer depending on the
materials and sizes.
Potentiometer range includes double potentiometer at the same shaft, high
voltage potentiometer, multi turn potentiometer, miniature potentiometer
Potentiometers are used for volume control, tone control and other
applications in Consumer Electronics, Entertainment Electronics,
Industrial Electronics, Medical Electronics, Telecommunication etc.
consumer electronics is composed of a wide variety of products (some
separately covered in the present exercise). The segments cover:
1. Television sets
& White and Colour
2. Audio Systems
Recorders, ACD Players and Music Systems
VCRs/VCPs, VCD and DVD Players
Non-entertainment Consumer Electronics
Watches and Clocks
Toys and Games
Public Address Systems
Indian consumer electronics industry attained a compound growth rate of
about 18% per year between 1992-93 and 1995-96. Although an impressive
rate, it had fallen short of the target of 22%. The industry produced
goods worth Rs 54 bn in 1995-96. The consumer electronics sector was
expected to record a production level of Rs 117 bn during 2000-01, a
growth rate of only 4.5% over Rs 112 bn in 1999-2000.
of electronic hardware from India had recorded an impressive 22% growth to
$605 mn during 1999-00 after two years of continuous downturn. During
1998-99, India exported electronic hardware worth $494 mn. In the year
1999-00, the exports of video films and software increased $102 mn and
Indian entertainment industry is expected to almost treble in size to 280
bn by 2005 from Rs 95 bn at present according to a study done by Arthur
Andersen. In India, the ratio of advertising expenditure (on which depends
TV entertainment) to GDP is about 0.4%. TV broadcasting segment is
expected to grow to Rs 85 bn by 2005 and Rs 290 bn by 2010. The current
status of the sector is estimated to be around Rs 30 bn. The cable
television segment, the report states, is expected to grow to about Rs 70
bn by 2005 from the current Rs 25 bn. The film industry is expected to
touch Rs 40 bn turnover by 2005, up from Rs 13 bn at present.
in the country is estimated to be valued at Rs. 627 billion in 2000-01,
out of which component sector will be about Rs. 55 billion, which will be
growing at a faster rate and therefore more nos. of Potentiometers will be
required. The cost of Carbon Potentiometer depends on the value, power
rating and size. Simple type carbon potentiometer costs from Rs. 10 to Rs.
25. Special type costs from Rs. 45 to Rs. 80. Raw material like resistive
material, silicon grease are imported. However, other raw materials &
machinery are indigenously available.
There are few units in the country manufacturing Carbon
Potentiometer. With high quality and competitive price and marketing
tie-up, there is scope for the industry.
casting in Aluminium alloy is popularly used for casting of Piston. These
engineering piston are used in automobile industries. The technique has
advantages when a component is required in large quantities. However in
automotive applications, properties and durability are of primary
importance. Therefore, it is essential that the best design should be used
and optimum casting techniques with minimum cost should be adopted.
Gravity Die Casting products are used in domestic as well as international
is a solid or hollow disc like plunger fitting closely in a bore of a
cylinder into which it reciprocates from Top Dead Centre (TDC) to Bottom
Dead Centre (BDC) and in the process imparts motion to the vehicle.
ring is a metallic ring of C.I., wrought iron, steel or gun metal etc.
Cast iron piston rings are preferred for IC engines. Piston rings are used
as the peripheral part of the piston. Rings offer a steam-tight or
gas-tight joint between cylinder wall and piston. This arrangement saves
leakage of burnt/half burnt fuel mixture and increases piston’s
efficiency to impart motion.
on piston size, engine capacity etc, the size of piston rings use in
automobile engines is wide and varied. Every auto-engine uses these
essentially in varying numbers and as compression ring, oil-control ring
or spare ring.
use of piston rings reduces the piston weight, improves engine
performance, restricts road-pollution and saves the other parts of the
engine from damaging.
in the quality of components provides the basic parameter for the
marketing of products. Following the same, the automobile industry in
India has been able to meet the demand for piston for the new generation
vehicles. No doubt, the tremendous demand for world class vehicles will
generate scintillating prospects of auto-component industry, particularly
automobile industry in India is at present undergoing considerable
expansion and modernisation with technology and know-how imported from
Japan, U.S.A. and Europe. Following the new economic policy effecting
decontrol and incentives, a number of fuel-efficient vehicles are already
in the market and many more are being added every year. The manufacturers
have been updating the technology by way of import of technologies and
modernisation of the existing manufacturing units. The prospects of
auto-piston industry are highly correlated with the development of
technique of gravity die cast aluminium alloy components has the following
advantages compared to other methods of castings:
1. High Productivity
2. Good cast surface finish and appearance.
3. Casted within close dimensional tolerance.
4. Do not require further machining.
5. Very thin section can be cast with ease.
6. Metal wastage in the casting process is less.
piston is a part of automobile which reciprocates in the engine cylinder
to transmit power to the wheels. It is generally made of Aluminium.
Pistons are used in automobile industries. The primary market is
expected to continue as the leading market with the trend of demand growth
in order to cater to the requirement of more and more new auto industries.
The demand is expected to expand at an average growth rate of 15% to 20%.
The replacement market is also likely to expand.
Indian bakery industry is dominated by the small scale sector with an
estimated 50,000 small and medium-size producers, besides the 15 units in
the organised sector. Apart from the nature of the industry which
gravitates to the markets and caters to the local tastes, the industry is
widely dispersed also due to the reservation policies of the government.
two major bakery products, biscuits and bread, account for 82% of all
bakery production. The unorganised sector accounts for about two-thirds of
the total biscuit production estimated at 1.3 mn tonnes. It also accounts
for 80% of the total bread production, which is estimated at 1.5 mn tonnes
and around 90% of the other bakery products estimated at 0.6 mn tonnes.
The last includes pasteries, cakes, buns, rusks and others.
is estimated to enjoy around 37% share by volume and 75% by value of the
bakery industry. The organised sector caters to the medium and premium
segments, which are relatively less price-sensitive. The organised sector
is unable to compete at the lower price range due to the excise advantage
enjoyed by the informal sector.
organised segment in biscuits has witnessed a steady growth of about 6%,
conforming broadly to the growth rate of GDP. The production crossed the
one-million tonne mark in 1995-96 which has now grown by estimated 30%.
industry in India is the largest of the food industries with an annual
turnover of about Rs. 3200 crores. India is the second largest producer of
biscuits after USA.
quantities of bread and biscuits produced are more or less the same.
However, value of biscuits is more than bread. The industry largely
continues to be in the unorganized sector contributing over 70% of the
total production. Bakery products earlier considered as sick man’s diet,
have now become an essential food items of the vast majority of
population. Though bakery industry in India has been in existence since
long, real fillip came only in the later part of 20th century. The
contributing factors were urbanization, resulting in increased demand for
ready to eat products at reasonable costs.
bakery units are unevenly spread and are mainly concentrated in
Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh.
Industrially advanced States like Maharashtra and West Bengal have very
large number of bakery units. The per capita consumption is very high in
industrialized States like Maharashtra and West Bengal. The Biscuits are
becoming quite popular in rural areas as well. Nearly 56-57% of the
biscuits are consumed by rural sector. The higher consumption of biscuits
in rural area could be attributed to its position as a snack.
has rationalised its product portfolio pruning the number of brands from
35 to 25. The company moved into the mass market for biscuits introducing
low-priced varieties under the umbrella brand, Tiger. The success of this
brand has enabled Britannia to expand its market share in the glucose
biscuit market. Its other major brands are 50:50, Marigold, Bourbon, Pure
Magic, Nice, Snax Coconut Crunchies, Glucose-D, Pure Magic, Good-day. Its
bread portfolio consists of Britannia, Britannia Premium Bake, Tiger and
Chekkers. The company is now planning to take on Parle’s premium-end
product, Hide & Seek and Milk Bikis.
has a tie-up with Danone of France. Danone is one of the largest processed
food producers of Europe-ranking seventh globally. It has a 22% equity
stake in Britannia. Britannia has the option to draw from the product
portfolio of Group Danone.
the past couple of years, it has launched a number of dairy products
(processed cheese, flavoured milk, butter, ghee and dairy whitener) and
ethnic snack foods such as ‘alloo bhujiya’ and chana choor.
MNCs like Nabisco, Arnotts and United Biscuits ventured into the market,
Britannia enjoys a premium position. It has dispersed plants geared to the
four metros which account for a major part of sales (65%). It also has 20
dedicated small units around the metros to help produce about 50% of
Industries, is planning to launch chocolate-based products and exploring
several variants in cheese, cakes and biscuits. The company has decided to
enter into areas where it will have the potential of becoming number one
operator. Britannia’s latest venture has been in milk in tetrapak, in
the form of lassi and cold coffee.
is exploring the possibility of extending its successful biscuit brand,
Tiger, into categories like milk or milk powder. Britannia’s French
partner, Danone, may consider taking the mass biscuit brand to its other
Asian markets like Malaysia and China as well as Russia.
Industries has acquired 49% stake in Kwality Biscuits. It has also
acquired Kwality Chef and several other trademarks along with copyrights,
designs in labels and packing material. The four group companies to be
merged with Kwality Biscuits are Vajram Traders, Camilla Investments,
Malakala Traders, Mytrayasa Traders. The domain of Kwality Biscuits
include baking, manufacture of biscuits, cakes, breads, buns, cornflakes
and other breakfast foods, popcorn, wheat shreds, pastries and flour.
Britannia is looking for more acquisitions in food business.
is the second largest producer of biscuits in the organised sector with a
market share exceeding 30%. In the popular brands segment, its Parle G
which remains a popular brand in glucose biscuit segment. In the premium
segment, its hide and seek is attracting competition due to the sway it
holds in the market place. In the saltish biscuits, Monaco has been quite
popular, especially in the cocktail circuit.
however, derives a major part of its revenues from the low-priced
products. The company has, nevertheless, outpaced the industry growth in
step with the market leader Britannia.
Lee—with world-wide interests in foods and beverages, personal and
domestic products apart from intimate wear–has exited from its bakery
business in India. Sara Lee Bakery India, which made a big bang entry into
the country in 1998 by acquiring the biscuit business of confectionery
major Nutrine has pulled out. Despite the excellent distribution network
inherited from Nutrine, Sara Lee’s bakery business suffered mainly due
to the onslaught from aggressive players like Britannia, Parle and Kwality.
known worldwide for breakfast cereals, has entered a new product
segment–biscuits. It has launched Kellogg’s chocos biscuits, an
extension of its chocos cereal. Kellogg’s found that there was an
opportunity to carve a niche for itself in the market by leveraging the
core equity of some of its large cereal brands.
has succeeded with the launch of Horlicks (a healthfood brand) biscuits.
Nestle has recently taken over the biscuits manufacturing 1 joint venture
with Dabur, Excelsia and converted it into a wholly-owned subsidiary.
Dabur India has divested its entire 40% stake in the controversial joint
venture. Excelcia Food with Swiss major, Nestle SA, thus existing the
biscuit business altogether.
major ITC is planning to enter the processed foods business with a range
that would include flour, confectionery and biscuits. ITC’s expansion
into Tprocessed and staple foods also fits in well with efforts by its
international trading arm to extend operations from farm to factory.
Foods is launching cookies, biscuits and namkeens. Vita Gold is
positioned against Parle’s Glucose brand. Lancer Food Products, a recent
entrant in the biscuit market, has planned to set up two additional
manufacturing plants at Noida, UP, in 2001-01. The new plants of Lancer
will have a biscuit manufacturing capacity of 150 tonnes per day as
compared to its existing unit which has the capacity to manufacture 20
tonnes of biscuits, 2 tonnes of cookies and 5 tonnes of namkeens per
day. Some 85% of the company’s total production is exported to countries
in Africa and the Middle East.
Food Products was set up with an investment of Rs. 26.1 mn has a capacity
to produce 5 tonnes of biscuits per day. In the past near two decades, it
has come a long way and today commands a significant share of the biscuit
study has shown that Bakeman’s market share has remained stagnant. In
contrast, older players like Britannia, Parle and Smithkline Beecham and a
host of new players like Kellogg’s and Sara Lee have seen their shares
expand. Bakeman is planning a major expansion which is expected to make it
the largest biscuit plant under one roof in Asia and the third largest in
the world. It is also revealed that the equation between unorganised and
organised sectors has shifted from 66:34 in 1997 to 60:40.
size of the bread market is estimated at Rs. 13 bn. There are a number of
producers in both sectors organised and unorganised.
Bakery products still remain the cheapest of the processed ready
to eat products in the country. The production of Bakery products has
increased from 5.19 lakh tonnes in 1975 to 18.95 lakh tonnes in 1990
recording four-fold increase in 15 years. Among the bakery products,
biscuits occupy an important place as they contribute over 33% of total
products processed. Over 79% of the biscuits are produced by small scale
sector consisting of both factory and non-factory units. The growth rate
for bakery products is estimated at an average of 9.8% per annum. The
demand for bakery products will continue to increase in future. The
estimated growth rate of 9.8% is on the lower side considering the present
potentiality of bakery products, particularly in rural areas, where about
70% of the population lives. Encouraging trends in consumption of bakery
products by population of lower and middle income groups indicate vast
scope for consideration of nutritional enrichment of bakery products.
Concrete Tiles and Paving Blocks
Concrete tiles are products made out of Cement Concrete. These are
available in many designs, colours and surface effects and their usage has
also increased tremendously.
concrete tiles and paving blocks are precast solid products made out of
cement concrete. The product is made in various sizes and shapes viz.
rectangular, square and round blocks of different dimensions with designs
for interlocking of adjacent tiles blocks. The raw materials required for
manufacture of the product are portland cement and aggregates such as sand
& stones ships which are available in local market.
concrete tiles and paving blocks find various applications as in
pavements, gardens, footpaths, passenger waiting sheds, bus-stops,
industry and other public places. The product is commonly used in urban
areas. Hence it is advisable to set up the unit in urban and semi-urban
areas as well as near the market.
lot of face-lift is being given to roads, footpaths along the roadside.
Concrete paving blocks are ideal materials on the footpaths for easy
laying, better look and finish. Whereas the tiles find extensive use
outside the large building and houses, lots of these materials are also
used in flooring in the open areas of public offices and commercial
buildings and residential apartments.
In India, Europe & China, the per capita consumption of
ceramic tiles in India is 1.01 sqm.p.a. and that that of China is 1.22
sq.m. p.a., other European Countries are 5-6 sq.m. per person p.a.
though botanically a fruit is generally considered a vegetable because of
the way in which it is consumed. Tomatoes are widely grown in all parts of
the world. However, the yield per hectare is the highest (245 tonnes/hect.)
in Netherlands. The world average yield of tomato is 23 tonnes per
hectare. Indian average yield of tomato is 9.6 tonnes per hectare. Tomato
products such as puree, juice, ketchup are commonly used commodities in
households, hotels and restaurants. By use of these items, the taste of
different food products is enhanced. Tomato puree is used as a substitute
of fresh tomato in cooking. Ketchup is a sweeter and diluted version of
puree (Pulp). Tomato sauce tastes sweet and sour. Both sauce and ketchup
are consumed with food and snacks. Tomato is a valuable raw material used
for processed products such as juice, puree, and paste, ketchup/sauce, and
canned whole. The recent scientific advances have revolutionised tomato
to increasing standards of living in the cities and the rapid urbanization
taking place in the rural areas, consumption of tomato based products is
going up steadily. At present, the market of ketchup/puree, specially in
the urban areas, is dominated by brands likes MEGGI and KISSAN. Some
Medium and Small Companies are also engaged in its production. Estimated
production of Sauce/Ketchup etc. in North India was around 4000 MT in
1995. The estimated demand for the products for the same period was 10000
MT which is expected to grow upto 12000 MT by 2005 AD. Thus, presence of a
demand supply gap of 6000 MT can be observed which may reach a figure of
8000 MT in 2005 AD. Thus, there is ample scope for a unit to come up in
this product sector to cater especially to the semi urban and rural
sectors of north India. Tomato processing in India is still not very
significant. Recently, there was a steady rise in production due to the
entry of multinationals with better market infrastructure and sales
high fluctuation in market prices of fresh tomatoes in the urban market,
there are good prospects for tomato juice, and tomato puree in place of
fresh tomatoes in household sector. Besides the boom in the food service
sector including fast food chain, has widened the demand potential for
tomato ketchup and soups.
Experiments have shown that advertisement and publicity have
influenced the pattern of consumption of tomato products. Besides, tomato
products have good export potential especially in the Middle East.
Distribution Board, refers to an equipment which consists of bus bars, and
possible switches, fuse links and Automatic protective equipment, bypass
equipment, for connecting, controlling and protecting a number of branch
circuits fed from one main circuit of a wiring installation in a building
or premises for easy and safe handling of incoming power supply. These
are, also used to protect the electrical distribution system in turn,
connected electrical equipment from being damaged due to various faults
like short circuit, over load, earth leakage, etc.
Conductor system by means of which electrical energy is conveyed from bulk
power source or sources to the consumers is known as distribution system,
which may be divided into two systems known as high voltage (primary)
distribution and low voltage (secondary distribution). From generating
stations the Electrical Power is usually transmitted to various
Sub-stations, through extra high tension transmission lines at voltages
from 33 to 220 kv and at these Sub-stations this voltage is stepped down
to 11 or 6.6 or 3.3 kV and power at this voltage is conveyed to different
sub-stations for distribution and to the bulk supply consumer.
at distribution Sub-stations the voltage is stepped down to 400 volts.
From these Sub-stations various low voltage (400 volts between phases and
230 volt between phase and neutral) distributed and radiated out to feed
the consumer. This system of distribution of power is known as low voltage
or secondary distribution system.
distribution system is classified in many ways i.e. according to current
A.C. or D.C. distribution, or according to the character of service i.e.
it may be: (i) General light and power, (ii) Industrial Power, (iii)
Railway (iv) Street lights etc. and according to number of wire, i.e.: (i)
two wire, (ii) three wire and (iii) four wire etc. But now a days AC
distribution system almost universally employed.
choice of the system of power distribution is determined by the type of
power that is available and by the nature of the load required for
particular user i.e.:
Distribution Board 2-Way 15A, 250 V
Distribution Board 2-Way 15A, 250 V
Distribution Board 4-Way 50A, 440 V etc.
The Distribution Boards, by virtue of being a functionally
integral part of any distribution system have vast opportunities of
demand. India is a developing country with a fast growing population and
the economic growth of the country and the demand for any essential item
grows as a function of population. Electrical power demand also grows as a
function of population and commensurately the infrastructural requirement
in the power sector grows. Our present generation capacity is about
1,05,000 MW but projected demand by 2012 is 2,05,000 MW that means an
extra 1,00,000 MW has to be produced to meet the demand. This phased
increase in the power generation and transmission and distribution has by
itself, necessitated increased production of electrical equipment, thereby
creating a good scope for the electrical equipment and distribution
Belts and Fan Belts
By and large, plant &
Machines for the manufacture of fan & V-belts are available indigenously
for undertaking new types of belts are required to be imported. Similarly
technical know-how for the conventional fan & V-belts is also available.
However, foreign collaboration for new types of belts are considered on
merits. Major raw materials are also available indigenously.
the name implies, these power transmission belts have the V-belt cross
section. They have various advantages over flat belts e.g. compactners,
quite operation, non slipping grip between belts and sleeve, absorption of
shocks grip between belts and sleeve, absorption of shocks, smooth
starting cleanliness, long service life, low cost and light bearing loads.
The internal structure of standard V-belts varies. Cords are the “back
bone” of V-belts. They are located in the upper wide portion. These
cords in the best belts are impregnated and embedded in a rubber compound
which reduces friction between individual strands or fibres and retards
heat build up. This is known as cushion rubber. This is embedded in a mass
of solid rubber; it is known as core. Core is the belt that improves
flexibility and increase shock absorption.
starting, monetary stresses greater than those encountered in running must
be withstand, and this core rubber acts as an absorber for the sudden
pull, thus protecting the cords and cover. When the belt travels around a
sleeve. The narrower a portion is compressed, and the solid rubber must
withstand such distortion without accumulating excessive heat. Special
cool running compounds have been developed. The whole thing is enclosed in
rubber fabric jacket or cover which acts as an envelope to resist wear and
protects the inner structure.
are specially useful for silent drive between short centre distances and
are used for fractional horsepower drives for domestic appliances and for
automatic fan belts. They come in five standard sizes A, B, C, D, E. The
top width of A is 12.7 mm (1/2 in) and that of E is mm (1) and the
thickness varies between the different sizes. When power transmitted is
heavy multiple belts are used in pullies having a number of grooves as
required. More recently, premium industrial belts known as 3V, 5V and 8V
belts or wedge type belts have been introduced. In these the ratio of
depth to the top width is greater than in the standard sections, giving a
more compact drive. These constructions are made possible by the use of
high tenacity materials such as polyester cord.
demand for fan & V-belts has been estimated by the development penal
at around 47.61 million number. It will thus be seen that there is
adequate scope for the development of this item both in the small scale as
well as in the organised sector.
as per the recent trends there is a change over for the use of more
sophisticated type of drives such as narrow width belts, raw egged belts,
raw egged cogged belts, space saver belts, timing belts etc.
of the organised units are taking effective steps to undertake the
manufacture of these types of sophisticated belt in the country.